Location and Natural Conditions
Bosporus, a narrow straight, links the Marmara See to the Black
See, and divides Istanbul into two main parts: a European and an
The European Istanbul is split in old and modern sections by the
Golden Horn, a narrow channel off the Bosporus.
The Bosporus is accompanied by rolling hills over them the city
is spread out.
the most important airport in Turkey and the city has been for centuries
an international junction to land and sea trade routes. The city
has as well the most important Turkish harbour.
For a better traffic flow in the city two bridges were built over
the Bosporus and a third one is planned.
a temperate climate composed of 4 seasons. It is described with
warm summers (from 10°C to 29°C) and mild winters (from
4°C to 15°C). The precipitation varies from an average of
33 mm in summer to an average of 107 mm in winter.
zones can be classified in to two groups:
- Scrub and
forest as natural vegetation, grove, park and housing gardens
made by human efforts.
- Scrubs which
occur as a result of destruction of forests are generally found
together with forest. Scrub formations are found in the southwest
part of Istanbul.
the main vegetation in and around Istanbul. There are two forests
on both sides of the Bosporus, named "Belgrade Forest"
at the European side and "Alemdag Forest" on the Asian
side. The dominate tree species is the oak (Q. robur, Q. petrea).
and public gardens
13.98 sq km
recycling building area
production from garbage gas
to the 15th century the settlement style which reflects
the Byzantium identity followed the same function in Ottoman times
and several monuments have been protected until now. From the 16th
century Islamic city form has been gained with urban monuments,
silhouette, ports and harbours. In the followed century urban population
continued to increase and functional divisions and development structure
of the city were defined. In the 18th century the most
important development which defines the identity and macro form
of the city was the civil buildings in Bosporus and Halic showing
the wealth of the Ottoman Empire.
century the traditional society structure of Ottoman couldn't resist
to the industrial revolution in the West. With the demolition of
some important monuments in the historical peninsula, roads were
built and a new period which has multi- centre, difference in man
scale structure, inharmonious permanent and transient structures
began. Therefore urban space which Byzantium and Ottoman used for
2000 years lost its attraction. This socio-economic environment
destroyed Istanbul's identity. Western culture continued its effect
over urban identity. In the republic period migration beginning
from 1945 caused great chances in physical structure of the city.
Transition to the open economy is increased, private sector enterprises
gained importance, by development of transportation and communication
Istanbul became a population attraction centre. Beside the increased
migration, the first planning studies to find solutions to urban
problems began with H. Prost in 1937 however till now these planning
studies haves been insufficient. So as to answer the needs for nearly
10 million people until 2010, Istanbul Metropolitan area sub-region
master plan was implemented.
always been the centre of the country's economic life because of
its location at an international junction of land and sea trade
routes. Turkey's major manufacturing factories are settled in the
city. Istanbul province produces cotton, fruit, olive oil, silk,
and tobacco. Food processing, textile production, oil products,
rubber, metal ware, leather, chemicals, electronics, glass, machinery,
paper and paper products and alcoholic drinks are among the major
industrial products. The city also has plants that assemble automobiles
of Istanbul stands solid on two columns: national it dominates the
trade and it has international significance.
20% of Turkey's industrial labour and 38% Turkey's industrial working
place. The city occurs 55% of Turkey's trade and 45% of the coutries'
wholesale trade and Istanbul occurs 21.2% of Turkey's gross national
in all the metropolis Istanbul is the economical capital of Turkey.
It has a population of 10,072,470 inhabitants in 2000 according
to the last population census and therefore one of the biggest cities
in Europe. Istanbul's population grows at the rate of 3.45% annually
due to the migration from countryside. The city has 54 municipalities
and extends for over 100 km. Population density of Turkey is 81
people per sq km but in Istanbul population density is 1700 people
per sq km. Istanbul contributes with 40% of all tax collected taxes
in Turkey and produces 27.5% of Turkey's national product.
the social changes Turkey is confronted with problems, which are
mostly solved in the western European countries years ago (squatters,
mass transportation). A problem for the city administration represents
the irregular and illegal urbanisation, which increase rapidly leaving
the Greater Istanbul Municipality not much time to search for solutions.
A challenge that is constantly growing, especially taking into account
the need of collective housing areas addressing to a population
of 13.000.000 people which is to be built within metropolitan area
until the year 2010.